Acid Etching

Surface of the glass is removed by the application of hydrofluoric acid. A variety of resists are used to selectively protect the glass surface. The techniques is often used with flashed glass. The resulting surface is smooth.

Acid Frosting

Using a paste of hydrochloric acid to abrade the surface of glass. Resulting surface is smoother than sandblasting.


Pigment is applied by spraying onto the surface

Beveled Glass

Glass that is faceted along the edge to enhance its optics


A design for a window showing all of the information needed to construct the panel

Color Selecting

Matching sheets of glass to the design. Often Pattern pieces are used to identify where the glass is to be cut.


Exterior wall of a building usually constructed of 1" insulated glass units (IGU's)

Dichroic Glass

A highly reflective glass with a metallic coating that splits light, reflecting one color and transmitting another.


Transparent or opaque, brilliant colors. Fires in the kiln below 1250 F. Not resistant to atmospheric acids

Flashed glass

Glass created with a thin layer of colored glass on the surface. Decorative effects can be realized by selectively removing the flash layer.


Finely ground-up particles of glass


Various pieces of glass are melted together in the kiln

Glass Painting

Process of applying vitreous pigments to glass for the purpose of creating imagery, modulating light or applying color. The technique predates the medieval period

Glass Stainer's Colors

Opaque earth colors (black, browns,grays). Used for Tracing or Matting. Fires in the kiln above 1250 F. Resistant to atmospheric acids

Kiln Formed

Generic term for shaping glass by heating it in the oven. Kiln cast and slumped have similar meanings and are often used interchangeably.


Gluing one piece of glass to another. Also two or more glass sheets can be joined with a plastic film interlayer to create "safety" glass. Like the front windshield of an automobile this glass holds together when shattered.


Assembling a stained glass panel using channels (cames) of lead. The cames are shaped in cross-section like a structural I- beam with a groove on each side that the glass fits into. The panel is built on top of the pattern. Solder is used to join the leads.


Glass is covered with pigment and details are created by removing the dried pigment with a variety of stiff brushes or needles

Pattern Pieces

Paper templates cut for each shape of glass that makes up a leaded glass window

Photo Resist

A masking material generated by a photographic process that can create finely detailed stencils for sand blasting or acid etching glass

Sand Blasting

Surface of the glass is removed by a pressurized abrasive. Surfaces can be lightly frosted or deeply carved. The resulting surface is rough.


Pigment is printed onto the surface by pushing it with a squeegee through a stencil mounted to a fabric support

Silver Stain

An oxide of silver that, when fired in the kiln, migrates into the glass surface, replacing sodium molecules and changes the color of the glass. The resulting color range varies from pale yellow to dark amber depending on the concentration of silver and the chemical make-up of the receptor glass. This technique first appeared in European stained glass windows in 1350 AD. However its use in the Middle East predates this by several centuries..


Glass is heated to the softening point and bent over a form


Using a hot iron to melt an alloy of tin and lead to join the lead cames, or channels, used in building a leaded glass window.


Heating then rapidly cooling glass in the kiln to toughen its surfaces. This process makes the glass 6 to 10 times stronger. Like the side windows of an automobile, when broken the glass shatters into square edged pieces. Tempered glass panels are strong enough to withstand the pressure of strong winds,extreme changes in temperature and the stress of drilled mounting attachments (Bayonne Rail Station shown)


Hand application of line work with a long-haired pointed brush usually to outline forms and details. Paint is applied with a wet medium.

Vitreous Pigments

Made from crushed up particles of glass and metallic oxides. The resulting paints can be transparent or opaque (shown).